Tangail is a traditional town. Many of the past traditions and the well-known folk culture of Bengal have inherited a series in history. The position of Tangail district is very high in ancient history and tradition and in the tradition of folk literature and culture. Proverbs have also been written about the folk traditions of Tangail. For example, ‘Chamcham, Tomtom and Sari, these are the three houses of Tangail.’ Tangail’s sweet and woven sari is world-famous. The tomtom car was once a significant vehicle in the folk tradition of Tangail.
There are two main examples of Tangail or Bangladesh folklore – earthenware plaque and nakshi kantha. Commercial ghosts have been cast on the nakshi kantha and the earthen plates are excluded as Hinduwani. As a result, our folk traditions are getting lost in the womb of time. Besides, the utensils made of Tangail’s bronze-brass and bamboo-cane also deserve fame. Folk sports of Tangail are also a significant element of folk tradition.
Moreover, there are several Muslim traditions and Hindu and tribal traditions in the territory of Tangail. Among the Muslim traditions are Atiyar Mosque, Dhanbari Mosque and Shrine, Kadim Hamjani Mosque, Khamar Para Mosque, and Shrine, etc. Among the Hindu traditions are Gupta Vrindavan, Satsanga Ashram of Pakutia, Baro Tirtha, Ananda Math, etc. And the tradition of Wangala of Garo of Tangail is no less.
The houses of kings and zamindars in Tangail also have a tradition. Each king-zamindar has built his abode with the sweetness of their minds. Not only that, the contribution of the zamindars of Tangail in educating the Bengalis is immense.
The tradition of ancient civilization during the Pala and Sen periods is hidden in the Tangail region. Such as the pond of Kalidas Pandit in the village of Kalidas. And Vrindavan is the green land of Radhakrishna Gopinis with Bayanna Khada land. There are still similarities between the traditional tamal tree and the wooden idol of Radha-Krishna. Next to the ancient pond. There is still a huge stone pile next to the flowing river. In Krishna Gupta Birha even today the longing of Birhi Radha is echoed in this Gupta Vrindavan. Moreover, places like Kalia, Mahanandapur, Kirtan Khola, Pratima Banshi, Dariapur, Shahar Gopinathpur, Ratanganj, Behula, Lakshnidar, Garh Gobindpur, etc. are the titles of tradition.
Some of the Traditions of Tangail are as Follows
World Famous Tangail weaving industry:
The history of the weaving industry in Bangladesh is very ancient. Like other parts of Bangladesh, Tangail district has a rich heritage. The culture of this country is involved with this industry. And the weaving industry is one of the bearers of our tradition. It is also the largest cottage industry or folk art in the country. The weaving industry of Tangail district is one of the partners of that largest industry.
From ancient times the skilled artisans of Tangail have been making various kinds of cloth in their lineage. And it takes yarn to make cloth. The yarn is made from cotton. Mirzapur Upazila, an ancient region of Tangail district, famous researcher James Taylor has written about the cotton of Mirzapur. Here the yarn of Bapta Hammam and other mixed cloth was cut from cotton.
Apart from that, the travel stories of the famous tourist’s Ibn Battuta and Hiuen Tsang mention the textile industry of Tangail. From that point of view, it can be said that the tradition of Tangail weaving industry is very ancient, it is our thousand year old tradition, culture, and culture. At present, Tangail’s reputation for Tangail weaving sarees is worldwide beyond the borders of the country.
Tangail’s soft silk and cotton sari have revolutionized the weaving industry. This sari weaving and design draws attention. The sari of Tangail is characterized by handicrafts. Sari and lungi are made by mixing silk cotton. Apart from this, the weavers of Tangail make sari, lungi, towels, and sheets.
It is said that weavers of Tangail used to weave muslin sari. At one time this muslin had a free movement from the Mughal court in Delhi to the British royal palace. Muslin cloth has been lost in the flow of time due to the conspiracies of foreign merchants. But Jamdani, Benarsi and Tantar sari of Tangail still survive as his successful successors.
Muslim weavers were called Jola. The majority of these weavers were in Tangail, Kalihati and Gopalpur areas. Again Yugi or Yungi is called Debnath as a Nathpanthi and Kaulik title. They had the exclusive right to weave thick cloth. The spinning wheel was in each of their families and all the men and women of the family, including their sons and daughters, were busy all day spinning and weaving cloth.
The Yugi community settled in the Kalihati and Gopalpur areas of Tangail. The Yugis used to make khoom, towels, and mosquito nets and run their business almost independently. It is also known that the basic title of the Hindu weavers of Tangail is Basak. They are predominant in Bajitpur and Nalsunda villages. But in Balla and Ratanganj there are thousands of Muslim artisans (Jola) and many of them are very rich.
It is known from history that the weavers of the Basak community are the original weavers of Tangail, i.e. they have been members of the Tantubayi tribe since ancient times. They can be called a class of nomads – initially, they came from the Indus Basin to Murshidabad in West Bengal and started weaving. But seeing that the weather was not good, they set out in search of a new place and moved to the Rajshahi region of Bangladesh.
Seeing the unfavorable weather there too, the Basakas split into two groups and moved to Bajitpur in Kishoreganj and the other to Dhamrai in Dhaka. However, some of them were associated with silk work and remained in Rajshahi. Before starting work in Dhamrai, the Basakas became involved in conflicts among themselves. As a result, many Basaks moved to the Chohatta region of the neighboring country.
From then on, the Basak weavers were permanently divided into two groups, Chauhatta and Dhamraiya. Fiber work was going well in Dhamrai and Chauhatta. However, many Basaks came to Tangail to settle down in search of better places. As the weather here was favorable for them, they started weaving in full force. They have been weaving looms in Tangail for generations.
At one time, most of the area in Tangail was inhabited by the Basak class, who trained inexperienced weavers through the Basak Samiti and regulated the quality of cloth. After the partition of the country in 1947 and the war of independence in 1971, many Basak weavers migrated to India. Apart from Basak, people from other communities also became deeply involved in the weaving industry. They became as skilled as Basak weavers.
Tangail Sadar, Kalihati, Nagarpur and Sakhipur upazilas are the weaved areas among the 11 upazilas and 1 thana of Tangail district. Besides, there is also weaving industry in Bhunapur Upazila.
The weaved villages of Tangail Sadar Upazila are Bajitpur, Suruj, Bartha, Bamankushia, Gharinda, Gosaijoir, Tartia, Chandi, Nalua, Deojan, Enayetpur, Belta, Garasin, Santosh, Nalsunda, Kagmari etc.
Balla, Rampur, Bangra, Sahadevpur, Bhukta, Aqua, Chatihati, Aisra, Ratanganj Kobdora etc. of Kalihati upazila.
Delduar Upazila Pathrail, Nalsodha, Chandi, Bishnupur etc. Besides, there are weaving industries in some villages of Gopalpur and Bhunapur Upazilas. In all these villages, the captivating sound of Makur can be heard day and night. The sight of the weavers weaving Nipur sari with the restless hands of the weavers is really captivating as well.
Tangail weaving involves the livelihood of about five lakh people. And there are lakhs of looms in Tangail. Tangail sari is not made in all these lakhs of looms. The number of such looms in Tangail is less than 20,000. And this traditional sari is made mainly in Bajitpur, Pathrail, Nalsunda, Chandi, Bishnapur, and Binnafair villages.
The handicrafts of Tangail weavers are done with great tenderness, in a very delicate and beautiful way with deep concentration. Men are weavers; And the women of the house cooperate in the work of spinning, coloring, and embroidery. The weavers mix the colors of the mind and make various designs or draw designs on the ground of the sari and make flowers.
The sari of Tangail is characterized by handicrafts. There are two types of sari weaving looms in Tangail: (1) Chittaranjan (fine) loom, (2) Pitlum (knock) loom. These two types of looms are used to make sari of different colors and designs. Such as- Jamdani or Soft Silk, Half Silk, Tangail BT, Baluchari, Jaripar, Hazarbuti, Sutipar, Katki, Swarnachur, Ikkat, Anarkali, Devdas, Kumkum, Sananda, Nilambri, Mayurkanthi and general quality sari.
Sarees are sold with different names and values, handicrafts, different colors, and different types of sari textures – starting from a minimum of Rs 200 to Rs 50,000. Jamdani or soft silk is the most expensive. Jamdani sari is made in an international standard way. Weavers use 100 counts of Japanese yarn to make this sari. Apart from this, 100 counts of yarn are also used to make other saris. Occasionally 80, 82, and 84 count yarns made in the Narayanganj connection industry are also used.
Before the partition of the country, the sari market of Tangail was located in Calcutta. Weavers from different parts of Tangail used to go to Calcutta by steamer launches and ships from Charabari Ghat, Porabari Ghat, Nalchia Ghat and Subarnakhali Port. The sari traders of Kolkata and West Bengal used to buy these beautifully woven saris.
Bajitpur in Tangail has been the main market for Tangail looms since the partition of the country. Bajitpur Hat is located one and a half kilometers south of the main town of Tangail. Hats are held every Monday and Friday of the week. Hats start here from dawn to dusk, the hustle and bustle of the haats go on till 9-10 in the morning.
Most of the buyers of this market are moneylenders. The moneylenders buy clothes at wholesale prices from this market and supply them to various big markets, shopping malls, and fashion houses across the country. Along with the moneylenders, the wives and daughters of high-ranking government officials, wealthy businessmen, and bureaucrats from different districts also bought their favorite saris from the market. However, the fashion houses based in Dhaka and various divisional cities are the big buyers and suppliers of Tangail sarees.
Tangail weaved sari is highly valued in West Bengal including various countries of the world like Europe, America, Japan, Saudi Arabia, various states of India. Due to the increase in the price of various parts of the machine, the cost of production of Tangail sari has gone down). (2) Aggression of Indian sarees (there are many buyers leaning towards it as Indian sarees are cheaper than Tangail weaved sarees due to easy availability of raw materials and low price of yarn). (3) The Tangail sari marketing system is in the hands of the moneylenders, so the marketing system is not being run smoothly.
Apart from this, the Basak weavers who left Tangail for India after the partition of the country, Pakistan-India communal riots and the liberation war of 1971 are trying to capture the world market by tarnishing the name of Tangail sari. However, despite so many adversities, the sari of Tangail weavers is able to regain its lost market. Because Tangail sari means sari made of different yarns, different weaving sari with different characteristics.
There is a wide variety of designs, textures, and colors. Other saris are made from 10 hands to a maximum of 11 hands, and Tangail weavers’ saris are made in 12 hands. This sari is soft and comfortable to wear, lasts a long time. Besides, keeping pace with the time and demand, the charm and design of Tangail saree are changing day by day.
Dhoti, sari, lungi are made in Bajitpur, Nalsunda, Santosh and Kagmari villages of Tangail. Lungi, towel and dhoti in Balla Ratan Ganj and Kobdohra villages of Kalihati. Kokdohra, dhoti is fine and soft. Ratan Ganj is made of bed sheets and aloyan. In the village of Bainnafair, excellent weaving cloth is made. Tangail silk cotton and blended yarn sari, lungi are made. However, the Yugi or Debnath community still retains the exclusive right to make towels and mosquito nets.
Among the successful weavers of Tangail sari innovation is Anand Mohan Basak of Bajitpur, Sitanath Basak, Neel Kamal Basak of Chandi village, Mane Montu; Harendra Basak of Nalsunda village, Raghunath Basak of Pathrail village, Anand, Govinda, Sukumar Basak, Khushi Mohan Basak are notable. They said that the main work of sari weaving in Tangail is completely different. This is a very old tradition. Without that knowledge and devotion, the real sari of Tangail cannot be made. To make the original Tangail sari, its weavers have to become artists. We have that artist weaver in Tangail. That is why Tangail’s weaving industry and weaving sarees are so famous.
Tangail’s Famous Bronze and Brass Industry:
Tangail is famous for its cassava and brass industries. At one time it was a prosperous business in Tangail. Not only Tangail but also Bangladesh and West Bengal of India had a reputation for this industry. Tangail’s taijas made of bronze and brass was in great demand all over the country. Although the demand of the country was met, bronze and brass utensils were also exported abroad.
These were especially famous in India. Tangail’s copper, bronze and brass industries were once famous in undivided Bengal. It belongs to the Beagle welding technology. And Tangail’s bronze and brass utensils became so famous for their lovely craftsmanship and incomparable quality.
The British government has awarded many of the most renowned bronze and brass artists with commendation and medals for their outstanding work in bronze and brass. Among them late Madhusudan Karmakar, Ganesh Karmakar, Basanta Karmakar, Yogesh Karmakar, Haran Karmakar are notable.
The bronze, brass and copper metals of Tangail’s main Kagmari have not yet been wiped out. These bronze and brass artists are still making various products in various rural areas of the district including Kagmari in Tangail. Although the bronze and brass industries developed in different parts of Tangail on the basis of great fame and demand, the villages of Kagmari, Magra and Sakrail were more famous.
At one time there were hundreds of families bronze and brass artists in these villages. The village was abuzz with the sound of their bronze beating day and night. Among the Hindus, the Karmakar community has been involved in this industry for generations. Tangail workers are still making copper, bronze and brass dishes, bowls, pitchers, glasses, jugs, sieves, vessels, bowls, jars, lotas, panch lamps, candles, agar lamps, cups, spoons, kajaldani, dekchi, dags with relentless labor. , Bowl, khunti, sarata, bowl, doll, jhunjhuni, kartal, medal, etc.
At one time these were the big utensils of the zamindars and landlords of Tangail region. With their help, these artisan societies have always created new things. For the Lord’s pleasure. The zamindars and the aspirants were also trying to diversify. Today, no one gives a brass pitcher, bronze jug, glass or spoon as a gift at weddings, meals and circumcision. At one time, items made of bronze and brass were considered as the best gifts for various social occasions including weddings and Muslims.
There is evidence in this thousand year old art history. In the village co-operatives there were professional classes like bronze makers, bronze traders etc. During the Pathan, Mughal and British rule, the form of Kansyakar was developed under the same patronage. Those who are involved in the copper, brass and bronze industries in Kagmari have hereditary surnames.
No one is seen to be involved in the bronze industry as a bronzer or a bronze trader. But the Kagmari bronze industry had a reputation and still has. Brass work is predominant in Barail and Kagmari of Tangail. Apart from the above, bronze bells, joydhak, copper kusha-kushi, tat puspadhar etc. are also made in the two villages of Kagmari and Mogra in Tangail.
The day has changed. The import of modern plastics, aluminum and melamine utensils has led to a severe shortage of raw materials for the development of Tangail’s traditional bronze and brass industry. As a result, this traditional folk art of Tangail is on the verge of extinction. The price of bronze sheets is so high now that it is beyond the purchasing power of the common man. Steel, melamine, porcelain, glass and plastic materials have taken over the market of bronze industry as an alternative as they are cheaper in price. As a result, the ancient folk art is on the verge of extinction under the influence of modern technology.
In addition, after the independence of the country, the smuggling of bronze and brass products to India continued and due to the situation, many skilled artisans associated with this industry left the country. Hundreds of families in the artisan community involved in the industry are now living inhumane lives. More than 50 families live in the two villages of Kagmari and Mogra in Tangail.
Some of them have chosen another profession. As a result, the number of bronze and brass artists is decreasing. Although there is a shop of this industry in Tangail district headquarters, it can be said that there is no sale. So the downturn in this industry is increasing day by day. If this trend continues and there is no doubt that this ancient and traditional folk art of Tangail will be lost in the mire of time.
The love song of various sweet melodies will not be heard in the voice of a Bengali woman. How many songs were composed about the art of bronze and brass.
In the end, it can be said that Mahajani capital has entered this folk industry. As a result, the artisan class will quickly become laborers but will not be able to develop on a solid foundation. Opportunities are also lacking today as it is being transformed into a small scale industry due to lack of proper technology.
Famous Sweets of Unrivaled Tangail District
Many sweets are made in Tangail district. Such as- Chamcham, Danadar, Rasgolla, Amritti, Jilapi, Sandesh, different types of Yoghurt, Khir, Noi, Tana, Khwaja, Kadma Batasa etc. But when it comes to the sweet industry of Tangail, first of all we have to talk about the splendor of Porabari. Known as the king of sweets, this place in Porabari of Tangail district is glorious in its splendor. Taste and individuality do not match.
When you hear its name, water comes to your tongue thinking of its incomparable taste and aroma. This delicious and alluring spoon is one of the sweets and one of the traditions of Tangail. This tradition is almost 200 years old. In other words, since the British period, Tangail has been widely known in various parts of the world, including undivided India. It has a reputation in Bengal, Bihar, India and all over the world.
Unmatched in the world of sweets, the features of different sized spoons are very nice, the exterior looks like burnt bricks. This delicious reddish spoon has sugar powder on the surface and its inside is juicy soft. Each cell on the inner soft part of the reddish-pink hue is filled with hard sweetness. Although the main ingredients for making this delicious spoon are pure milk, sugar, water, a little flour and cardamom grains, the taste of Tangail spoon is mainly dependent on Tangail water. In other words, the main secret of making Tangail spoon lies in the water here. Many people from many parts of the country have tried to make Tangail spoons with the help of Tangail terracotta artisans. But could not succeed. Due to this historical splendor, Tangail became known in the world market even before it was born as a district.
According to the researchers, a man named Dasaratha Gaur came to Porabari on the banks of river Jamuna in Tangail during the British rule. Coming from Assam, this Dasaratha Gaur made the first spoonful with the delicious soft water of the Jamuna and the pure cow’s milk here. Then he started business here. At that time Porabari was one of the river ports of Tangail. When the Mughal subedar Islam Khan appointed Hazrat Shah Zaman as the ruler of Atiya Pargana in 1608 AD, he established the village of Porabari as a river port.
At that time Porabari Bazar was a bustling business center on the west bank of Dhaleshwari. At that time big merchant boats, launches, and steamers used to crowd the burnt house. Gradually, when Porabari is full of lively activities in public gatherings, then delicious Chamcham i.e. sweet art is developed here. With the discovery of rasgolla came the renaissance of the confectionery industry, the beginning of the fame of the porabari chamcham and the pearl mandar in contemporary times. The era of Chamcham tradition begins with Palla.
There was once a ghat just 3 miles west of Tangail district headquarters, called Talan Ghat. Merchant boats, ships and launches were also crowded there. At that time Porabari was a busy business center for local and foreign traders. At that time the business of Chamcham was also flourishing. Every week 150 to 200 manas were made in Porabari. According to some, at that time about one and a half spoonfuls were made every day in Porabari.
Due to the increasing success and demand, about 40 to 50 spoon-making factories were set up in Porabari, with which the lifestyle of more than three hundred families revolved. After Dasaratha Gaur, Rajaram Gaur, Kushaidev, Narayan, Kakan Halui, Shivshankar Gaur, Prakash Chandra, Madan Gaur, and Mohan Lal were involved in making sweets at that time. The names of his next-generation i.e. Khoka Ghosh and Gopal Chandra Das are especially noteworthy. They were successful in the sweet business. At present Panch Ani Bazaar in Tangail city is famous for this sweet industry.
Chamcham is now a delicious dessert that is tempting to people of any age. Exchanging greetings with this spoon is still common in weddings, pujas, birthdays, exam results, job promotions, election victories, new jobs, in-laws ‘or relatives’ visits.
In the whirl of time, the tributary river of Jamuna rises in innumerable chars in the chest of Dhaleshwari. As a result, the business of Porabari waterway was stopped. Gradually the populous slums became depopulated. So many people used to make a living from this traditional spoon industry, they became unemployed. In order to survive, they move to another profession. The condition of Porabari market is very good.
There are 4 to 5 broken Chora Chamcham shops in this market. Which only carries the memory of tradition. Sweets are still made in the market and a few houses in the vicinity. They supply the sweet capital Dhaka and other cities of the country. Joykali Mistanna Bhandar, Gopal Mistanna Bhandar, and Tangail Porabari Sweets still have unadulterated Porabari spoons.
At present, besides Panch Ani Bazaar in Tangail, various types of sweets are also being sold in different places of Tangail district. Such as Amirti, Rasmalai, Rasgolla, Sandesh, Kalojam Jilapi Khwaja Batasa, Kadma, Noi, Tanabadam etc. Sandesh of Mirzapur Upazila Jamurki is famous. Rasgolla has a reputation in Nalin Bazar. Kadma has a reputation at the Faila Paglar Fair in Basail Upazila.
Apart from this, the people of Ghoshra Opal community of Tangail make grains, curd, and ghee. This yogurt is not less famous. No less in taste and smell than Bogra yogurt. On the contrary, some Ghosh yoghurt is better than Bogra yoghurt. For example, blue lotus curd of Almannagar, curd of fruit Khoka Ghosh and Ramadan curd of Bhunapur are famous.
Traditionally, Porabari Chamcham is facing various adversities today. These sweet makers and traders are being deprived of financial gain and leaving this profession for another profession. If we leave like this, the splendor of our traditional terracotta will disappear one day.
The Ghosh and Pala communities of Tangail have been engaged in the sweet industry for generations. However, De, Nag, etc. are seen to be engaged in making sweets somewhere. Tangail’s Modak graduates were also involved in the sweet industry and still are. The Hindus with the title of Modak are hereditarily made from molasses, oil, flour, etc. with jilapi, kadma, batasa, gaja, khwaja, nai, tana, and sugar with khorma, masonry, sugar or gur saj Is created.
Tangail has a long tradition of making sweets like dairy curd, milk, ghee, butter, etc. That has been said before. Nardai, Deupur, Nichanpur and Elenga of Kalihati in Tangail district. Falda and Bhunapur Sadar in Bhunapur and Sweet Patti in Gopalpur, Almannagar, and Nalin Bazar are notable places for making delicious and good curd, milk, ghee, and butter.